Do Underdeveloped Countries Persist with Outdated 1.0 Model in School Education?

Do Underdeveloped Countries Persist with Outdated 1.0 Model in School Education?

Education 1.0 to 4.0: let’s traverse the path.

Education 1.0 is the first generation of education as web 1.0 is the first stage of the internet. At the end of the 18th century, Education 1.0 commenced where students were passive in classrooms and teachers were the centre of education. The blackboard and pens were used as teaching aids. These were simple knowledge transfer classrooms, where notes were made and only information was transferred from teachers to students.

Education 1.0 consisted of a simple knowledge transfer classroom in which teachers passed on information to students.

School without furniture or building in Sindh, Pakistan. Photo from

At the turn of the 20th century, Education 2.0 started. This was the first time where students were starting engaging in the class. New relationships between teachers and students started where they were equally communicating to each other (discussion), rather one way of transfer as in education 1.0. Teachers played a guiding role in classrooms and students were active. Computers of the first generation were also used in education, however, due to the higher cost, this wasn’t a common practice.

Rather than one way of knowledge transfer, education 2.0 introduce the discussion method.

At the end of the 20th century, Education 3.0 was initiated where teachers worked as collaborators and students were active and independent. The computer and the Internet have been used as enabling technology.

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Education 3.0 provided a collaboration space to students and teachers using the internet.

At present, Education 4.0 is underway, where the role of the teacher is the mentor and the students are active in the classrooms. The courses are completely student-centric and technologies similar to the Internet of Things (IoT) and Artificial Intelligence (AI) is used as a catalyst.

Education 4.0 uses the Internet of Things (IoT), Artificial Intelligence (AI) and 5G as catalysts.

Where the education sector covered long-distance from education 1.0 to 4.0, there are still large numbers of schools, particularly the underdeveloped countries’ public schools, which still run on the education 1.0 model. The main reason is the massive workloads in the school and untrained teachers. Where the teacher barely imparts knowledge to the students. In these countries, a minimum portion of GDP is allotted for education.

Photo by Ksenia Chernaya from Pexels

Due to the lack of resources, more than 80 or 90 students sit in one class. Teachers have to teach 7 classes per day. With such a heavy burden, teachers only use the board to transfer the information to the students. Moreover, such a heavy load frustrates teachers.

The other major problem with the education sector of developing countries is that skills learned at school is misaligned with the skills required in the field. These countries” school prepared the nation to become a clerk, where the world no longer need a clerk. Education 4.0 aims to prepare the generation for industry 4.0. Therefore, institutions, education departments, administrations, teachers, parents and students must keep themselves familiar with the recent educational trends to step with the world.

With this rapidly changing curve, the education sector could not be ignored. It shapes the future of the nation. If they are ignored today, the future will be darkened. It is a need of time for all those nations, whose school still operates on the knowledge transfer model, to change it too student-centred. Education 4.0 should be imparted so that the nation can be prepared for future industries’ jobs.

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