Asynchronous and Synchronous Computation for Parallel Computing

Asynchronous and Synchronous Computation for Parallel Computing

Parallel and distributed computing are crucial paradigms in modern computing, enabling the efficient utilization of resources and the acceleration of computational tasks. Asynchronous and synchronous computation and communication are fundamental concepts in these paradigms, governing how tasks are executed and how data is exchanged among computing nodes. In this tutorial, we will delve into the concepts of asynchronous and synchronous computation and communication, their significance, advantages, and how they are applied in parallel and distributed computing environments.

Understanding Asynchronous Computation

Asynchronous computation refers to a mode of operation where tasks can execute independently of each other, without waiting for each other to complete.

Key Characteristics:

  • Independence: Asynchronous tasks do not depend on each other’s completion. They can start, execute, and complete at different times.
  • Non-blocking: In asynchronous computation, tasks do not block each other. They can proceed concurrently without waiting for the completion of other tasks.
  • Flexibility: Asynchronous execution allows for dynamic task scheduling and resource utilization, enabling efficient use of computational resources.


  • Event-driven Systems: Asynchronous computation is prevalent in event-driven systems such as web servers, where tasks handle incoming requests independently.
  • Parallel Processing: Asynchronous execution is fundamental in parallel processing environments for achieving high throughput and scalability.


  • Improved Throughput: Asynchronous computation maximizes resource utilization by allowing tasks to execute concurrently, leading to improved throughput and efficiency.
  • Reduced Latency: Asynchronous tasks can overlap in execution, reducing overall latency by minimizing idle time.
  • Enhanced Scalability: Asynchronous systems can scale more effectively as they can adapt to varying workloads and allocate resources dynamically.

Consider a web application that needs to fetch data from multiple external APIs to display information to the user. Instead of waiting for each API call to complete sequentially, asynchronous computation can be used to initiate all API calls concurrently. This allows the application to continue processing other tasks while waiting for the API responses asynchronously. Once all API responses are received, the application can aggregate the data and update the user interface accordingly. This approach improves the responsiveness and efficiency of the web application.

Understanding Synchronous Computation

Synchronous computation refers to a mode of operation where tasks are executed sequentially, with each task waiting for the completion of the previous one.

Key Characteristics:

  • Sequential Execution: In synchronous computation, tasks are executed one after the other in a predetermined order.
  • Blocking: Synchronous tasks block the execution of subsequent tasks until they complete, leading to a sequential flow of execution.
  • Deterministic: Synchronous computation ensures deterministic behavior as tasks are executed in a predictable order.


  • Critical Sections: Synchronous computation is used in scenarios where tasks must be executed in a specific order or where shared resources need to be accessed safely, such as in critical sections of code.
  • Transaction Processing: Synchronous execution is prevalent in transaction processing systems where operations must be performed sequentially to maintain data consistency.


  • Simplicity: Synchronous computation offers a simple and straightforward model of execution, making it easier to reason about program behavior and correctness.
  • Determinism: Synchronous execution ensures deterministic behavior, which is desirable in many applications, especially those requiring consistency and reliability.
  • Synchronization: Synchronous computation facilitates synchronization between tasks, ensuring that critical operations are performed in a coordinated manner.
Asynchronous vs. synchronous communication

In multiplayer online gaming, players interact with each other in real-time, and the game environment must remain consistent across all players’ devices. Synchronous computation is crucial in this scenario to ensure that game actions, such as player movements, attacks, and interactions with the game world, are processed and synchronized across all players simultaneously.

Asynchronous vs. Synchronous Communication

In parallel and distributed computing, communication between computing nodes can be either asynchronous or synchronous, depending on when data is sent and received.

Asynchronous Communication

  • In asynchronous communication, messages are sent and received independently of the sender and receiver’s execution states.
  • There is no strict coordination between sender and receiver, allowing for overlapping communication and computation.
  • Asynchronous communication is well-suited for scenarios where latency is not critical, and there is a need for flexibility and scalability.

Synchronous Communication

  • In synchronous communication, messages are exchanged in a coordinated manner, with sender and receiver synchronizing their actions.
  • Synchronous communication typically involves blocking operations, where the sender waits for acknowledgment from the receiver before proceeding.
  • Synchronous communication is useful in scenarios requiring strict timing constraints and coordination between communicating entities.

Implementing Asynchronous and Synchronous Computation/Communication

Asynchronous Implementation

  • Asynchronous computation can be implemented using techniques such as asynchronous programming models (e.g., async/await in Python), event-driven architectures, and non-blocking I/O operations.
  • Libraries and frameworks such as asyncio, Twisted, and Node.js provide support for asynchronous programming, enabling developers to write efficient and scalable asynchronous applications.

Synchronous Implementation

  • Synchronous computation is implemented using traditional sequential programming models, where tasks are executed one after the other.
  • Synchronous communication can be achieved using blocking I/O operations, synchronous message passing libraries (e.g., MPI), or remote procedure call (RPC) mechanisms.

Asynchronous and synchronous computation and communication are fundamental concepts in parallel and distributed computing, influencing the design and implementation of scalable and efficient systems. Understanding these concepts and their applications is essential for building high-performance and resilient distributed applications. By choosing the appropriate approach based on application requirements and constraints, developers can leverage the benefits of both asynchronous and synchronous paradigms to create robust and scalable distributed systems.

Self Assessment

  • What is asynchronous communication and how does it work?
  • What is synchronous communication and how does it work?

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