World Wide Web (WWW) and Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP)

World Wide Web (WWW) and Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP)

Understanding the WWW?
The World Wide Web, commonly known as the WWW or simply the Web, is a system of interlinked hypertext documents and multimedia content that is accessed via the Internet. It was invented by Sir Tim Berners-Lee in 1989.

How does it work?
The WWW operates based on hypertext, where documents (web pages) are linked together using hyperlinks. These hyperlinks allow users to navigate between documents by clicking on links, creating a vast and interconnected network of information.

Understanding the HTTP
HTTP stands for Hypertext Transfer Protocol. It is the foundation of data communication on the web. HTTP is an application layer protocol that facilitates the transfer of hypertext, which includes text, images, videos, and other multimedia content.

How does HTTP work?
When you enter a URL (Uniform Resource Locator) in your browser, it sends an HTTP request to the server hosting the desired web page. The server then responds with an HTTP response, delivering the requested content back to your browser. This exchange of requests and responses forms the basis of communication on the web.

HTTP Methods

  • GET: Used to request data from a specified resource.
  • POST: Submits data to be processed to a specified resource.
  • PUT: Updates a resource or creates a new resource.
  • DELETE: Deletes the specified resource.

HTTP Status Codes

  • 200 OK: Request was successful.
  • 404 Not Found: The requested resource could not be found on the server.
  • 500 Internal Server Error: A generic error message indicating a server problem.

URLs and URIs

  • URL (Uniform Resource Locator): A web address that specifies the location of a resource on the internet.
  • URI (Uniform Resource Identifier): A string of characters that identify a name or a resource on the internet.

HTTPS (Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure) is a secure version of HTTP. It encrypts the data exchanged between the browser and the server, ensuring the privacy and integrity of the information.

Self Assessment

  • What is the primary purpose of the World Wide Web (WWW), and who is credited with its invention?
  • Differentiate between HTTP and HTTPS. Why is HTTPS considered more secure?
  • Name and briefly describe three HTTP request methods and their purposes.
  • Walk through the step-by-step process of how a browser communicates with a server using HTTP when a user enters a URL.
  • Provide an example of a URL and break down its components (protocol, domain, path).
  • Explain the concept of a Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) and how it differs from a URL.

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