Cloud Computing Explained: Introduction, Technologies, Applications & Challenges

Cloud Computing Explained: Introduction, Technologies, Applications & Challenges

We encounter cloud computing every day. For instance, if you use an Android phone, your photos and videos are likely backed up to a cloud service like Google Drive. Similarly, if you use Microsoft OneDrive, your data is copied to the cloud. Cloud computing also supports our email services, social media, and messaging apps like WhatsApp. But what exactly is cloud computing?

Cloud computing can be defined as a utility service. Just like electricity, gas, or water, cloud computing provides essential services without requiring users to understand the underlying complexities. We consume these services and pay according to our usage. Similarly, cloud computing offers resources such as memory, storage, computing power, networking, applications, and platforms over the internet, on a pay-as-you-go basis.

What is cloud computing?

Why Cloud Computing?

There are numerous reasons why individuals and organizations migrate to cloud computing. Here are some key motivations:

Why cloud computing

24/7 Availability and Support

Cloud computing services are available around the clock. They utilize algorithms for self-correction and facilitation, ensuring continuous availability and support without the need for specific operational hours.

Lower Cost

Cloud computing reduces costs significantly. Instead of purchasing infrastructure or software, users can rent these resources, paying only for what they use. This is similar to hiring a minibus for a trip instead of buying one.

Location Independence

Since cloud services are hosted on the internet, they are accessible from anywhere in the world. This location independence allows global connectivity and resource utilization.


Users pay for cloud services based on their utilization, eliminating the need for upfront investments and providing cost efficiency.

Automatic Backup and Recovery

Cloud services automatically handle data backup and recovery. Data is typically replicated in multiple locations, ensuring that it can be recovered even if it is accidentally deleted from one site.

Increased Utilization

Cloud computing increases resource utilization by allowing multiple users to share high-powered computing resources. This prevents underutilization and optimizes performance.


Cloud platforms use artificial intelligence and various algorithms for diagnostics and self-correction, enhancing their self-service capabilities.


Cloud computing offers easy scalability. While traditional systems rely on vertical scaling, which is costly and complex, cloud services use horizontal scaling, which is more manageable and cost-effective.

The Need for Cloud Computing

Devices’ connectivity to the internet

Big Data Generation

The rise of big data necessitates cloud computing. With an expected 50 to 75 billion devices connected to the internet by 2030, the volume of data generated will be enormous. Cloud computing is essential to process and manage this massive influx of data efficiently.

Big Data Characteristics

Big data charactristics

Big data is characterized by three primary Vs: Volume, Variety, and Velocity.

  • Volume: The sheer amount of data generated is massive.
  • Variety: Data comes in various forms, including structured, semi-structured, and unstructured data such as text, numbers, audio, video, and photos.
  • Velocity: Data is generated at high speed, requiring continuous processing.

Social media platforms are prime examples of big data applications, dealing with vast volumes of unstructured data generated at high velocity.

Key Technologies in Cloud Computing

To process and store the vast amounts of data in the cloud, several key technologies are employed:

Key technologies of big data and cloud computing

Parallel and Distributed Processing

  • Parallel Processing: Involves using multiple processors to handle data simultaneously, significantly reducing processing time.
  • Distributed Processing: Distributes data across geographically separated servers for regional processing and then consolidates the results.


Hadoop is an open-source framework for processing and storing large datasets. It utilizes parallel and distributed computing to handle massive data efficiently.

Apache Spark

Apache Spark, developed in 2009 and later acquired by Apache in 2014, is used for big data analysis. It is approximately 200 times faster than Hadoop due to its in-memory processing capabilities.

NoSQL Databases

NoSQL databases are designed to handle unstructured data. They are flexible, scalable, and capable of storing and processing data without rigid schemas.

Data Warehousing

Data warehousing involves storing large datasets for analysis and retrieval. It provides a centralized repository for big data.

Cloud Computing Services

Cloud computing services are categorized into three main types:

Services of cloud computing

Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS)

IaaS provides cloud infrastructure such as computing power, storage, and networking over the internet. Users can utilize these resources without owning physical hardware.

Platform as a Service (PaaS)

PaaS offers cloud platforms for developing, deploying, and managing applications. It provides the necessary tools and environments for application development without requiring users to manage the underlying infrastructure.

Software as a Service (SaaS)

SaaS delivers software applications over the internet. Users can access these applications without installing or maintaining them on their local devices.

Deployment Models of Cloud Computing

Cloud computing can be deployed using three primary models:

Deployment models of cloud computing

Private Cloud

A private cloud is dedicated to a single organization. It provides exclusive access to cloud resources, ensuring security and control over data and applications.

Public Cloud

A public cloud is accessible to the general public. Cloud providers offer services to multiple customers, who share the same infrastructure but have isolated data and applications.

Hybrid Cloud

A hybrid cloud combines private and public cloud elements. Organizations can keep sensitive data on a private cloud while utilizing the public cloud for less critical resources. This model optimizes resource utilization and cost efficiency.

Applications of Cloud Computing

Cloud computing is pervasive across various domains:

Applications of cloud and big data


In healthcare, cloud computing is used in hospitals, telehealth, research, and diagnostics, providing scalable and efficient solutions.

Supply Chain Management

Cloud computing enhances supply chain management by enabling real-time tracking, logistics, and autonomous vehicle operations.

Other Applications

Cloud computing is also used in education, finance, entertainment, and numerous other sectors, proving its versatility and importance.

Challenges in Cloud Computing

Despite its many advantages, cloud computing faces several challenges:

Challenges in cloud computing

Security and Privacy

Ensuring the security and privacy of data stored in the cloud is a significant concern. Organizations must implement robust security measures to protect sensitive information.

Data Management

Managing and processing vast amounts of data efficiently is challenging. Technologies like Hadoop, Apache Spark, and NoSQL databases help address these issues.

Cost Management

While cloud computing reduces costs, managing and optimizing these costs requires careful planning and monitoring.


Challenges in cloud computing

Organizations must ensure that their cloud services comply with relevant regulations and standards, particularly when dealing with sensitive data.

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